In the past decades, however, due to rapid and massive socioeconomic development, Chinese culture and people’s psychology have undergone profound changes. Lynn, M., and Snyder, C. R. (2002). The items include: (a) I prefer being different from other people; (b) Being distinctive is important to me; (c) I have a need for uniqueness; and (d) I intentionally do things to make myself different from those around me (α = 0.80). JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways. People with a high NFU value non-conformity (Asch, 1956) and desire to be unique, separable, and distinct from “the masses” (Snyder and Fromkin, 1980). Measuring culture outside the head: a meta-analysis of individualism–collectivism in cultural products. Front. Studies of independence and conformity: I. In the last 30 years, tattoo body art has become increasingly prominent the Northern American population with an estimated 20 million adults with tattoos. This finding enriches our understanding of societal change’s psychological impact of societal change in China. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245, Kim, H. S., and Sherman, D. K. (2007). doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-590241-0.50006-X, Pelham, B. W., Mirenberg, M. C., and Jones, J. T. (2002). Soc. Decis. Standing out as a signal to selfishness: culture and devaluation of non-normative characteristics. 26, 311–324. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a five-country study of consumers’ need for uniqueness (CNFU) and examine its research and practical implications. J. Int. Kelly Tepper Tian, William O. Bearden and Gary L. Hunter, Read Online (Free) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199, Kim, S. H., Vincent, L. C., and Goncalo, J. For example, Marco has a high need for institutional power and is regarded as a person who is capable of bringing necessary changes to the organization … This revealed complexity may be partly due to the persistence and variation of subsistence style (e.g., Talhelm et al., 2014). M. H. Bond (Hong Kong: Oxford University Press), 479–498. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523, Hoorens, V., and Nuttin, J. M. (1993). 86, 518–527. Psychol. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3, Paulhus, D. L. (1991). Overall, the average name character frequency across all individuals was 529.94 (SD = 692.57), while the average name character frequency per year across all years was 527.72 (N = 60, SD = 273.15). As a personality trait, the revealed rise in the NFU is consistent with our prior finding that narcissism has been growing in China (Cai et al., 2011), given that the NFU has been linked to both narcissism (Emmons, 1984) and psychological entitlement (Campbell et al., 2004). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychol. Abnormality as a positive characteristic: the development and validation of a scale measuring need for uniqueness. The presentation of empirical work is followed by a discussion of how consumers' need for uniqueness could be used in better understanding consumer behavior and the role consumption plays in people’s expression of identity. Explaining innovative behaviour: uniqueness-seeking and sensation-seeking. Triandis, H. C. (1995). Soc. Within China, the individual-level analysis also indicated that a high NFU was associated with people’s high individualistic orientation but low collectivistic orientation (Tsai et al., 2013). doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.10.011, Zhang, J. J., and Tsai, W. (2015). Psychol. It is the … 28, 50–66. Belk 1988). 11:177. doi: 10.1521/soco.19184.108.40.206, Inglehart, R., and Baker, W. E. (2000). Both correlations supported a significant decrease in name character frequency since 1950 (see Figure 2). Burns, D. J., and Krampf, R. F. (1992). Uniqueness definition, the quality of being unlike anything else of its kind or of being solitary in type or characteristics: Owing to its physical and behavioral uniqueness, the osprey is … : On my second reading of it the ideas are much clearer, and I find myself increasingly amazed at the uniqueness and political realism of the Marxist worldview and analysis. To build a sample of baby names in China, we collaborated with the Chinese Public Security Department which records all newborn baby names. Why? J. A salient shift is the rise of individualism. J. Pers. These studies showed that the relative usage of singular first-person pronouns (e.g., “I” and “my”; Hamamura and Xu, 2015) versus plural first-person pronouns (e.g., “we” and “our”) and the prevalence of words related to individualistic values (e.g., autonomy and freedom; Zeng and Greenfield, 2015) have been increasing over the past decades. Unique definition is - being the only one : sole. 5:1066. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01066. Share actual examples from your own work history to back up your answers. It currently publishes more than 6,000 new publications a year, has offices in around fifty countries, and employs more than 5,500 people worldwide. Controlling for these two covariates, the effect of birth year remained significant (β = -0.15, t = -3.65, p < 0.001). Doing business in the 21st century with the new generation of Chinese managers: a study of generational shifts in work values in China. Rev. Methodologically, it is difficult to identify the exact causes of cultural and psychological change because the changes usually occur naturally over the course of time, making it almost impossible to use an experimental or longitudinal design. Some people may be interested in how important historical events, such as the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976, may have influenced the NFU. Boulder, CO: Westview press. For instance, one study reported that the Cultural Revolution influenced naming practices in Beijing and surrounding areas (Obukhova et al., 2014). doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684-8264-5_2, Morling, B., and Lamoreaux, M. (2008). To identify the uniqueness of each character, we used the latest version of the Modern Chinese Character Frequency of Use Dictionary (Xiandai Hanyu Zipin Tongjibiao, , 1992) as a reference. Thus, such need for uniqueness may be constrained by the need for social assimilation (Brewer, 2012). The reference-group effect. The need to be unique may be related to the need to be creative. Second, given that a high NFU is beneficial for creativity (Dollinger, 2003; Kim et al., 2013) and a challenging issue in contemporary China happens to be the improvement of creativity among employees and organizations, managers, government officials and policymakers may make use of the heightened NFU to promote Chinese creativity. Request Permissions. Large-Scale psychological differences within china explained by rice versus wheat agriculture. A re-examination of service standardization versus customization from the consumer’s perspective. FIGURE 2. Second, we are limited in identifying the causes of the increasing tendency toward the NFU in China. A unique selling proposition is a well-thought-out statement that helps a company distinguish itself from other businesses in its category. Mark. For instance, past research has found that a variety of individualistic values (e.g., autonomy; Xu and Hamamura, 2014) and traits (e.g., narcissism; Cai et al., 2011) have been rising in China, a historically collectivistic-oriented society. 65, 1443–1451. Int. Consumers' need for uniqueness may fit into an overarching theory of the role that consuming material goods plays in people's sense of identity (cf. Young Chinese consumers’ Snob and Bandwagon Luxury consumption preferences. Examining the characteristics of human names across different historical periods is a valid way to study cultural changes over time. Effects of experimentally aroused feelings of undistinctiveness upon valuation of scarce and novel experiences. Future studies may explore the unique contribution of each possible factor using a more sophisticated research design. Consumers' need for uniqueness (CNFU) is defined as “the trait of pursuing differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods for the purpose of developing and enhancing one's personal and social identity” (Tian, Bearden, and Hunter 2001). 65, 1452–1460. doi: 10.1080/08961530.2013.827081, Twenge, J. M., Abebe, E. M., and Campbell, W. K. (2010). Empirical, theoretical, and methodological articles spanning fields such as psychology, marketing, sociology, economics, and anthropology are featured in this interdisciplinary journal. Pers. doi: 10.2307/2657288, Ishii, K., Miyamoto, Y., Rule, N. O., and Toriyama, R. (2013). As the scale was originally created in English, we applied the commonly used procedure of back-translation to ensure equivalency of meaning when we translated it into Chinese (Brislin, 1980). need for a reference data set that is considered to be the authoritative source of such data and is 100% complete. Monogr. Regardless, the change in name character frequency holds for both boys and girls in China. Purchase intention for luxury brands: a cross cultural comparison. Front. 65, 19–51. Bus. Cult. Cogn. (2003). This research investigates the interaction effect of a very common task, explaining decisions, and an individual difference, need for uniqueness (NFU), on buyer decision-making. doi: 10.1080/00224545.1981.9922763, Keywords: need for uniqueness, China, cultural change, individualism-collectivism, social change, Citation: Cai H, Zou X, Feng Y, Liu Y and Jing Y (2018) Increasing Need for Uniqueness in Contemporary China: Empirical Evidence. Received: 08 August 2017; Accepted: 03 April 2018;Published: 08 May 2018. Children’s first names: an empirical study of social taste. 28, 67–82. A total of 580 participants were recruited from an online pool for a major research lab located in Beijing, China. Soc. By examining self-reported NFU across different generations, Study 1 found that younger generations report a higher NFU than that of older generations. 0. Understanding luxury consumption in China: consumer perceptions of best-known brands. For instance, a large body of research has demonstrated that people with a high NFU desire scarce, novel, customized or unpopular products and are more likely to be attracted by unusual marketing strategies as well as to shop in less popular outlets (for a review, see Lynn and Snyder, 2002). Sci. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. doi: 10.1086/230048, Lynn, M., and Harris, J. J. Sociol. uniqueness example sentences. Dictionary Thesaurus Examples Sentences ... works to educate American consumers about the uniqueness of the wines of Champagne and expand their understanding of the need to protect the Champagne name in the United States. Therefore, we excluded these two names from the analysis, making the final sample consist of 598 names (male: 327, female: 271). They suspected that the gender effect might reflect parental expectations. Behav. In one study, Chinese college students were found to report a higher NFU than American college students (Bian and Forsythe, 2012). “Cultural variation in the self-concept,” in The Self: Interdisciplinary Approaches, eds J. Strauss and G. R. Goethals (New York, NY: Springer), 18–48. J. To the extent that some consumers have stronger dispositional needs for uniqueness than do others, there should be corresponding individual differences in the desire for scarce products. Chinese consumers’ online group buying. Again, our results confirmed a significant increase in NFU (β = 0.17, t = 3.94, p < 0.001). Select the purchase Psychol. Why Susie sells seashells by the seashore: implicit egotism and major life decisions. J. Advert. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Increases in individualistic words and phrases in American books, 1960–2008. Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. doi: 10.1080/08911762.2013.864372, Snyder, C. R., and Fromkin, H. L. (1977). Copyright © 2018 Cai, Zou, Feng, Liu and Jing. Substantial supportive evidence has been documented. Psychol. While naming babies serves as a special kind of cultural practice reflecting core cultural values (Lieberson and Bell, 1992), the names themselves play an important role in cultural transmission across generations (Twenge et al., 2010; Varnum and Kitayama, 2010; Grossmann and Varnum, 2015). Res. 37, 99–116. doi: 10.1126/science.1246850, Taras, V., Steel, P., and Kirkman, B. L. (2012). 25, 290–304. Sci. Last but not least, the demonstrated importance of the NFU for consumer behavior suggests that there is a growing market for diverse and individualized products and services, which are beneficial for Chinese people to satisfy their increasing NFU. 27, 54–68. 12, 199–221. Markus, H. R., and Kitayama, S. (1991). (2004). Dollinger (2003) found that greater need for uniqueness was associated with higher scores on the Creative Behavior Inventory. Founded in 1974, the Journal of Consumer Research publishes scholarly research that describes and explains consumer behavior. Uniqueness involves a person’s distinctiveness in relation to other people. For instance, while cross-cultural comparisons revealed that Americans tend to value unique objects and visual representations (relative to common ones) more than do East Asians (e.g., Kim and Sherman, 2007; Ishii et al., 2013), Koreans devalue and avoid individuals exhibiting non-normative characteristics more than Americans (Kinias et al., 2014); More directly, Japanese and Malaysian consumers reported a lower NFU compared to their American counterparts (Burns and Krampf, 1992; Takemura, 2014). Unusual names and uniqueness. For example, if you’re applying for a customer service position, the employer probably isn’t interested in hearing about your unique trapeze skills. Pers. J. Serv. option. Our results also highlight the importance of considering culture as a dynamic system wherein established cultural differences across countries may vary with time, particularly for fast-changing societies such as China. PLoS One 7:e40181. doi: 10.1037/a0029728, Kinias, Z., Kim, H. S., Hafenbrack, A. C., and Lee, J. J. FIGURE 1. The higher these barriers to entry, the smaller the threat for existing players. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4684-3659-4, Snyder, C. R., and Shenkel, R. J. Psychol. These findings are consistent with a large body of research on the relevance of the NFU to consumer behavior in the West (for a review, see Lynn and Snyder, 2002). strength for NU ﬁnd their need for uniqueness is aroused when they see themselves as being highly similar to others, as in the example. Talhelm et al., 2014), the samples in our two studies, particularly baby name sample in Study 2, are relatively small, which may compromise the strength of our finding to some extent. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.03.006, Lieberson, S., and Bell, E. O. Such uniqueness can reflect actual behaviors or a person’s perceptions regarding his or her differences. doi: 10.1080/02650487.1992.11104497, Cai, H., Kwan, V. S. Y., and Sedikides, C. (2011). The NFU refers to “a positive striving for differentness relative to other people” (Snyder and Fromkin, 1977, p. 518). 27, 94–105. J. Abnorm. Bull. With a personal account, you can read up to 100 articles each month for free. 1, 19–25. All Rights Reserved. A sociocultural approach to narcissism: the case of modern China. Sentences Menu. Typically, a Chinese given name consists of either one or two characters based on the preference of the child’s parents or elderly family members. Organ. doi: 10.1207/s15327752jpa4803_11, Fromkin, H. L. (1970). Study 1 showed that young people tend to have a higher NFU than older people, providing preliminary evidence for the increasing NFU in China. Cooper and I. T. Robertson ( Oxford: John Wiley & sons,!, Q., and education by publishing worldwide think we have achieved our goal by revealing rising! Krampf, R. J rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions meta-analyses... 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